Leonardo da Vinci
Born15 April 1452
Died02 May 1519
NationalityRepublic of Florence
Leonardo was born on April 15, 1452, at 3 pm in the Vincent Mountain of Tuscany, in the lower valley of the Arno River, in the Republic of Florence. According to Angela Ottino Kieza, his birth was recorded in the diary of Leonardo's paternal grandfather, Sir Antonio. He was the extramarital son of a wealthy Florentine notary Messer Piero Fruizino di Antonio da Vinci and a rural Katrina. Katrina is believed to have been a slave from Central Asia or the Mediterranean basin. According to Alessandro Vezosi, director of the Leonardo da Vinci Museum in Vinci, there is evidence that Piero had a Central Asian slave named Catherine. According to reports, Leonardo's fingerprint studies have shown that he has average blood. The article cites evidence that 60% of people of Central Asian descent have a spin-off with the restored reference to Leonardo. The article also notes that some disagree with this assertion because they believe it is not possible to guess the human race, especially when only one fingerprint is taken into account. Leonardo didn't have the last name, it just means Vinci from Vinci. His full name was Leonardo di Sero Piero da Vinci, meaning Leonardo, the son of Piero da Vinci. Love meant that Leonardo's father was noble.
Little is known about Leonardo's childhood. He spent the first five years of his life in the village of Anciano in his mother's home, and since 1457 has lived in the home of his father, father, and uncle in the small town of Vinci. His father was married to 16-year-old Albiera Amador, who loved Leonardo but died in 1465 without a child. When Leonardo was 16 (1468), his father remarried to 20-year-old Francesca Lanfredini, who also died without children. Piero's legal heirs were born to his third wife, Margarita di Giulielmo (he had 6 children: Antonio, Julia, Maddalena, Lorenzo, Violante, and Domenico), and fourth and last wife, Lucretia Cortijeci, who had 6 children: Pandolfo, Giuliello, Bartolomeo and Giovanni.
In all, Leonardo had 12 step-sisters and brothers who were much younger than he was (the last one was born when Leonardo was 40) and had little contact with them, but after his father's death, they had inherited difficulties.
Leonardo studied informally in Latin, geometry, and mathematics. Later, Leonardo recorded only two incidents from his childhood. The first, which he considered a sign, was when a balloon fell from the sky and floated on its cradle, and its feathers touched his face. The second happened while he was exploring the mountains. He discovered a cave and was afraid that a big monster might be hiding there, and at the same time, he was interested in what was there.
Leonardo's childhood has given historians speculation. The 16th-century biographer of Renaissance artists tells Vazari about young Leonardo. A peasant makes a circular shield for himself and gives it to Sir Piero to paint. Leonardo paints a monster that emits a fire that is so terrifying that Sir Piero sells it to a Florentine dealer who sells it to the Duke of Milan. At the same time, making a profit, Sir Piero buys a shield with a heart shot with an arrow and gives it to the villager.
Engineer, technician, anatomist, prospect specialist Leonardo has become a miracle of versatility. In every area of study, he regularly expanded and deepened his knowledge, tested with experience, and made connections with mathematics. His knowledge was enormous.
The painter had to wander all his life, not tolerating injustice, quarrels, and inhumanity. He has worked in Milan, Florence, Rome, Venice. He never had any real material security in Italy, as did Titian, Rafael, Michelangelo, or even a modest artist like himself, Julio Romano. From time to time, he felt unnecessary in Italy. Unrecognized, culturally lonely was his tragedy. In 1517, at the invitation of King François I, he moved to France, where he lived until the end of his life as "the first royal painter, architect, and machine builder."
He designed the Tour-Blau-Sao irrigation canal and the architectural masterpiece Shambor.
The general direction of painting and sculpture in Florence was realism, as it was perfectly suited to the interests and taste of the Florentine bourgeoisie. And so Leonardo was also a realist. Its element was creativity, and the method was scientific research and verification of results through experience.
Leonardo did not invent anything and did not memorize anything.
That is why he always kept small notebooks and albums, which, as soon as they were finished, replaced him with new ones.
Florence always saw Leonardo dressed perfectly. He was walking proudly in the city. He was tall, handsome, blonde, with a beard, a beret on his head, a jacket on his shoulders, a short red cloak on his shoulders, and a small album hanging from his waist was always a little album where he would make notes and write notes. His face was clear as if it were not expressive. From his life he was complaining to no one, he was not running after orders, and he was not in a hurry to complete them. It might seem that he works as a rich man and lives like a rich man. And Leonardo lived as a poor man and worked as a scientist, not as a "hoarder."
When Leonardo was assigned a job, he worked out the plan himself, not taking into account the terms of the order. Leonardo, however, has always seemed incomprehensible to the ignorant mob, and he has been accused many times of being a witch and of profaning Christendom's capital, of herding corpses and of being a heretic.
But some people noticed the difference between Leonardo and his ancestors. His name is mentioned in the list of the 5 greatest artists of his time: Mantenia, Giorgione, Leonardo, Raphael, Michelangelo. Vasari puts Leonardo at the beginning of a new era of Italian art. Classical Renaissance art begins with Leonardo.
On April 23, 1519, he sent a man to summon the notary and dictated his will. The most important point of the will was that all the manuscripts as property were passed on to Francesco Meltsi, the "nobleman of Milan" "in honor of the precious services shown to him in past times." The brothers received the 400 Scudes, preserved in Florence, and the Chiezolian estate, which he had taken from them in court in 1507.
A few days later, on May 2, 1519, Leonardo, a good Catholic, accepted the sacrament and died. Two days later he was buried in one of the churches of Amboaz. Melzi extracted from Leonardo's manuscripts some of the notes on the painting, somehow scattered the notes and published them under the title "A Treatise on Painting."
As a scientist and engineer, Da Vinci has enriched almost all fields of science in his observations. The manuscripts included designs for flying machines, parachutes, canals, bridges, metal stoves, typewriters, and excavators.
He was the first to view botany as an independent biological science, describing the sunshine of plants, the movement of materials in the roots. However, due to the low level of technology Da Vinci was not able to implement his innovative ideas.
Much of his literary work is collected in large bookshops in Paris, the British Museum, the Windsor Library, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Ambrosian Museum of Milan, and elsewhere. Most of them have been published.
The creative life of 1476-1480
In the 1480s, Leonardo received two very important assignments and began another work of great importance in terms of composition. Two of the three were never completed, and the third lasted so long that it became the subject of long negotiations and payouts.
St. Hieronymus in the desert
One of these paintings was in the wilderness of St. Hieronymus, which Bortolon links with the difficult period of Leonardo's life, as evidenced by his diary. "I thought I was learning to live , I was just learning to die." Although the painting hardly begins, the composition is visible and very unusual. Hieronymus is half as guilty as he is, with a small diagonal and a little view from above. His colored knee takes the form of a trapezoid, one hand stretching out to the outer edge of the picture, and one gazing in the opposite direction. Ջ. Wasserman points out the connection between this picture and Leonardo's anatomical studies. In the foreground was his symbol, a huge lion, whose body and tail formed a double spiral over the base of the picture. The other notable feature is the outline of the rocky outcrops that outline the figure.
Worship of the Magi
The bold manifestation of artistic composition, landscape elements, and personal drama also appears in a great unfinished masterpiece, Worship of the Magi. This is a complicated composition, about 250 x 250 centimeters. Leonardo has done numerous paintings and preparatory studies, including a detailed description of the ruined classical architecture in linear terms, which forms part of the background. In 1482, Leonardo went on the order of Milan Lorenzo Medici and left the painting.
Madonna on the rocks
The third major work of this period is the Madonna Rock, commissioned in Milan for the secrecy of immortal ideas. The painting, which was to be done with the support of the brothers De Predis, had to fill a large altar. Leonardo decided to paint the apocryphal moment of Christ's childhood when baby John the Baptist met the Holy Family on the way to Egypt with the protection of an angel. The painting reflects unparalleled beauty as exquisite figures kneel around the newborn Christ in the landscape of rock and rolling water. Although the painting is quite large, about 200 × 120 centimeters, it is not as complicated as the order of the Saint Donato monks, with only four figures in more than fifty and stony landscapes than architectural details. The painting is finally over, in fact, both versions of the paintings are finished. One was left in the chapel of the Armenian Apostolic Church, and Leonardo was taken to France. However, the Brothers did not receive their painting, nor did De Predis pay them until the next century. However, the Brothers did not receive their picture.
In 1503 he created one of his most notable works, the "Mona Lisa" ("Fokonda"). The young woman's dreamy, thoughtful, mysterious, slightly sad smile reveals the inner world of the woman. Mona Lisa is pictured in the landscape. The distant mountains, the sky, the river, the trees seem to be widespread.
Nature and man are inseparable for the artist. Evidence of this is also the canvas "Mother of God in the Caves" (1483-1494), whose characters are also in the landscape and create a unique emotional environment. In Leonardo da Vinci's manuscripts, drawings of a flying machine, a submarine, an automatic overhaul, and a helicopter, canals, metal stoves and spools, typewriters, were discovered. Leonardo left 7,000 manuscript pages after his death, which have not been fully studied to date.