Vincent van Gogh
Born30 March 1853
Died29 July 1890
Van Gogh and his brother's Letters
The full source of Van Gogh's life is the correspondence between him and his younger brother, Theo van Gogh. Their closeness and Vincent's perceptions of art are recorded in hundreds of letters exchanged between the brothers in 1872-1890. Theo van Gogh was selling art and supporting his brother both financially and mentally, as well as establishing his connection with influential people in contemporary art.
Theo kept all of Vincent's letters, Vincent kept some of his brother's letters. After the death of the two, Theo's widow, Johanna van Gogh-Bonger, published some of their letters: they were published in 1906-1913. Most of the letters were published in 1914. Vincent's letters are eloquent and expressive, close to the journal style and read like a biography. Translator Arnold Pomerance wrote that their correspondence "gives Van Gogh a new opportunity to comprehend the art presented by the artist himself."
About 600 letters sent by his brother Van Gogh have been retained, while only 40 of Theo's letters have been received. Twenty-two letters were addressed to their sister Will van Gogh, 58 to artist Anton van Rapper, 22 to Emil Bernard. Separate letters are addressed to Paul Sneak, Paul Gogen, and critic Albert Aurie. Some of the letters are illustrated. Many letters are not dated, but artists have been able to arrange them in chronological order. There are problems with enumeration and legibility with the letters sent from the Arl. These letters are about 200 and are written in Dutch, French, and English. The correspondence is open to the period when the brothers lived in Paris together and did not need correspondence.
Vincent Willem van Gogh was born on March 30, 1853, in the family of a spiritual shepherd living in the Dutch village of Funders. Vincent was the eldest of the deceased children of Theodore Van Gogh and Anna Cornelia Carbentus. The baby was given the name of his grandfather and brother who died a year before he was born. The name Vincent was very common in this family. The name was named after painter Vincent, who graduated from the University of Leiden in 1811 with a degree in theology. She had six children, three of whom were involved in the art business. This Vincent may also have been named in honor of his sculptor grandfather.
Van Gogh's mother was from a safe family in The Hague. The artist's father and mother met when Anna Cornellia's younger sister married Theodore's older brother Vincent. Van Gogh's parents married in May 1851 and moved to Funders. Brother Theo was born on May 1, 1857. They had another brother named Core, and three sisters, Elizabeth, Anna, and Vilhelmina. Late in life, Vincent van Gogh only kept in touch with Theo and Will. Van Gogh's mother was a demanding, God-fearing woman, and she attached great importance to the role of the family. Theodore's father's salary was modest, but the church provided him with a home, a maid, two cooks, a gardener, a chariot and a horse, and Anna took on the task of maintaining the family's high social status.
Van Gogh was a serious and thoughtful child. He was educated by his mother and a home educator, and in 1860 he was sent to a rural school. In 1864 he settled in the Schevenbergen boarding school, where he felt lonely and abandoned, expressing a desire to return home. Instead, in 1866 his parents sent him to Tilburg Secondary school, which he was very unhappy with. The future artist has shown interest in art from an early age. He painted his mother, these paintings are remarkable. Constant Cornell Kaimsmans, a successful artist in Paris, taught in Tilburg. His philosophy was to give up the technology in favor of expressive things, especially the depiction of nature. Van Gogh's misery overshadowed the lessons, making them useless. In March 1868 he returned home. He later wrote that his childhood was "harsh, cold, and fruitless."
In July 1869, Van Gogh's uncle became a member of the Goupil & Cie Company, an art dealer. After completing his education, he moved to the London branch of the company in 1873, located on Southampton Street, and rented an apartment on Hackford Road. This season was happy for Van Gogh. he was successful in his job and at the age of twenty, he had already earned more than his father. Later, Theo's wife said that this period was the happiest period of Van Gogh's life. He is attracted to his mistress, daughter of Eugene Loyer, but is soon turned down after his feelings are revealed. Van Gogh is becoming more isolated and enthusiastic. His father and uncle arranged for him to move to Paris in 1875, where he disagreed with a company that sold artworks, resulting in his dismissal a year later.
In April 1876, Van Gogh returned to England to receive a teaching job at the Ramsgate Boarding School. When the owner of the school moved to Isleworth Little City, Van Gogh followed him but did not continue his teacher work there and became an assistant minister. During this time, Vincent's parents moved to Etienne-Leure. In 1876 Vincent van Gogh returned home on Christmas Eve and worked at the Dordrecht Bookstore for about six months. He was not satisfied with his position and spent his time drawing or translating Bible passages into English, French, and German. He delves deep into the faith and becomes godly. According to a friend of the artist's roommate, Paulus van Giorlitz, Van Gogh was sparingly fed, almost eating no meat.
In 1877, to maintain his religious faith and become a priest, the family traveled to Amsterdam with his uncle, Johann Stricker, but did not take exams there and left the uncle's house in July 1878. He also spent a three-month course at the Lachen Protestant preaching school, not far from Brussels.
In January 1879, he became a publisher in the village of Petit Wassem, in Bornaj, a poor mining area. To support the religious community, he abandoned his comfortable home and moved to a small hut where he slept on a straw, but his efforts were not supported by church authorities who dismissed him "for humiliating the priest." After that, he traveled 75 kilometers Brussels too, Bornajes, but returned to Etienne on his parents' request. He stayed there until March 1880, causing anxiety and frustration among his parents. The father, who stated that his son should stay in Chile's psychiatric hospital, was particularly upset.
Van Gogh returned to Cuesse in 1880, where he worked as a miner until October. He became interested in people, events with them and painted them after Theo suggested that he take art seriously. At the end of the year, following Theo's advice, he traveled to Brussels and took painting lessons from artist William Ruloffs, who, despite being unfriendly to regular art schools, advised him to attend the 'Royal De Boer Art' Academy. In October 1880, Van Gogh enrolled at the Academy, where he studied mathematics and standard rules of modeling and outlook.
Etienne-Leure, Drenthe and The Hague
Van Gogh returned to Ete in April 1881 to continue living with his parents. He continued to paint, using his neighbors as his master. In April 1881 they are hosted by the daughter of the painter's elder sister, Wilhelmina and Johannes Stricker, Cornelia. Cornelia was seven years older than Van Gogh. The artist amazes everyone with his announcement that he has fallen in love with Cornelia and offered his a marriage, but he declines, saying: No, nay, never. "When Cornelia returns to Amsterdam, Van Gogh travels to The Hague to sell his paintings and meet another cousin, painter Anton Mauve, spend on coal and paste to develop painting techniques the artist, following this advice, returns to Ete.
Mauwen Van Gogh receives a pupil and introduces him to the watercolor technique that the artist had already worked on the following month before returning home for Christmas. He argued with his father, refusing to attend church, and traveled to The Hague. Within a month, Van Gogh and Mauve are out of orders, possibly because of gypsum statues. Van Gogh could not afford a second hire, most likely this would not encourage Mauwen either. In June, Van Gogh spends three months in the hospital diagnosed with sausage. After leaving the hospital, he began painting with a watercolor he had bought with the money he borrowed from Theo. He liked the environment. The artist wrote that he was also surprised at how good the result was.
In March 1882, the relationship between the artist and Mauve was probably strained, and the latter no longer responded to his letters. She learns about Van Gogh's new companion, Clazina Maria Hoornick, who was a lightweight woman with a small daughter. Van Gogh met his in 1882 when he was pregnant and had a five-year-old daughter. Earlier, the woman also had two children who died, but Van Gogh did not know. In July she has a son, William. When Van Gogh's father learns of his son's intimacy, he pressures his son to leave Sien and his two children. At first, Vincent refused to carry out his father's order, thinking of moving the family out of town, but in 1883 he abandons Sien and his children.
Poverty may have pushed Siena into prostitution. The family has become less happy, and Van Gogh has realized that the family is incompatible with his development as an artist. Clasina handed the daughter to her mother and William to her brother. Willem later recalled that he visited Rotterdam at the age of 12 when his uncle forced Sienna to marry and legalize the baby. He thought that Van Gogh was his father, but his birth makes that version unlikely. Sien was strangled in the Sheld River in 1904.
In September 1883 Van Gogh moved to the north of the Netherlands - Drenthe. He returned to live with his parents in December, after which he left for North Brabant, Nouine.
Niuean and Antwerp (1883-1886)
At Nuenen, Van Gogh focuses on painting. Working very fast, he painted canvases and their huts. Since August 1884, a neighbor's daughter, Margo Begeman, who has been a painter for ten years, joins his. Margot fell in love with the artist, and Van Gogh responded with mutual love, but less enthusiasm. They wanted to get married, but the family of either party did not support that decision. Margot desperately accepts a dose of strychnine but does not die as Van Gogh manages to take his to a nearby hospital. On March 26, 1885, the artist's father dies of a heart attack.
Van Gogh painted a series of still life in 1885. During his two-year stay in Nuenen, he painted some 200 paintings with watercolor and oil paints. His palette consisted mainly of dark colors, especially dark brown, and showed no sign of vivid coloring, which marks the artist's later creative period.
In early 1885, his paintings aroused interest in a Paris merchant. Theo asks Van Gogh if he has drawings ready for the show. In May, the artist responds to his first large-scale work, "Potato Eaters," a series of "exploring the characteristics of villagers." The painting was the culmination of several years of work. When he complains that Theo does not make enough effort to sell his paintings in Paris, the brother responds that they are too gloomy and do not conform to the vivid style of Impressionism. In August, Van Gogh's work is being presented at an art exhibition in The Hague. In September 1885 one of the peasants who served the artist became pregnant. Van Gogh is accused of violating the peasant's will, and a village priest forbids villagers to serve as painters.
In November, Van Gogh moves to the upper floor of the Antwerp and leases a paint shop. Here he lived in poverty, malnourished, preferring to spend his brother's money on painting materials and materials. The main components of his diet consisted of bread, coffee, and tobacco. In February 1886, he wrote to Theo that he had only tasted hot food 5-6 times since May. His teeth began to move and groan. In Antwerp, Van Gogh began to study color theory, particularly interested in Rubens' work and enriching his palette colors including carmine, emerald, bright blue. Van Gogh bought Japanese ukiyo-e carvings, later incorporating them in some of his paintings. During this time, he again began to get drunk and was hospitalized in February-March 1886, where he was also treated for syphilis.
After healing, despite his dislike for academic art, Van Gogh took entrance exams at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Antwerp and entered the painting department in January. He suffers from overwork, poor nutrition, and too much smoking. He began painting classes in January 1886 after studying gypsum models at the Antwerp Academy. The artist soon has trouble for the director of the academy, the teacher of painting Charles Verlag for the non-traditional style of painting. He also clashes with Franz Wink, the head of the painting class. He finally began to attend painting lessons taught by Eugene Sikvidt. Soon there is a conflict between Sibert and Van Gogh when the latter refuses to comply with Sibert's request. When they were supposed to paint Milosos Venus at the studio, Van Gogh paints the flawless body of a Flemish peasant. Sibert views it as disobedience to his leadership, and in Van Gogh's painting, he begins to make pencil adjustments with such force that he tears it apart. Van Gogh is furious and screams at Sibert. “You probably don't know what a young woman is going to do for a writer. A woman should have thighs, buttocks, a hip to carry a baby. " According to some reports, this was Van Gogh's last lesson at the academy, after which he left for Paris. On March 31, 1886, a month after the dispute with Siebert, the academy's lecturers decided that 17 academy students, including Van Gogh, should repeat the course. The view that Van Gogh expelled Siberten from the academy is not justified.
In March 1886, Van Gogh moved to Paris, where he and his brother, Theo, lived on Laval Street in Montmartre and studied at Fernand Cormon's studio. In June, the brothers rented a large apartment on Lepik Street. In Paris, Vincent painted portraits of friends and acquaintances, still life, offshore scenes of Moulin de Los Galet, Montmartre, Aniere, Senna. As early as 1885 in Antwerp he had begun to inquire about the Japanese ukiyo-e carvings, using them to decorate the walls of his studio. He has collected hundreds of such engravings in Paris. He created Japanese-themed paintings, painted the Japanese image of the cover of Paris Illustre magazine, which subsequently graphically enlarged the canvas.
Seeing paintings by Adolph Monticelli in the gallery, Van Gogh adopted a brighter palette displayed in the maritime landscape of St. Mary's 1888. Two years after Vincent and Theo were paid to publish a book on Monticelli's paintings, Vincent bought some of Monticelli's work for his collection.
Van Gogh learned about Theo from Fernando Cormon's studio in Theo and worked there from April to May 1886, often visiting Australian painter John Peter Russell. In 1886 Russell painted his portrait. Van Gogh also interacted with the students of Emil Bernard Luis Einquitini, Henry de Toulouse-Lautrec, and the latter painted a portrait of Vincent. They met at Julien Tangi's paint shop. In 1886 two major exhibitions were organized here, for the first time presenting works in the style of Poinantialism and Neo-Impressionism, which attracted the attention of George Siora and Paul Sneak. Theon Montmartre had impressionist painters in his showroom, but Van Gogh was still in no hurry to embrace new art trends.
There is a dispute among the brothers. Living with Theon Vincent in 1886 is considered "almost unbearable". In early 1887 they split up, and Vincent moved to the northern suburb of Paris, Anaire, where he met Sinai. He adopts elements of pointillism, a technique that manifests itself on the canvas with numerous small brushstrokes that make the images depicted visible from afar. The style emphasizes additional colors, including blue and orange, creating a striking contrast.
In the air, Van Gogh painted parks, restaurants, Sena scenes, Sena bridges. In November 1887, Theo and Vincent befriended Paul Gogen, who had just arrived in Paris. At the end of the year, Vincent organized a photo exhibition with Emil Bernard, Luis Einquitain and possibly Toulouse-Lautrec at the Grand Bourbon du Shale restaurant in Montmartre. In his chronicle, Bernard noted that the exhibition presented what was at that time in Paris. Here Bernard and Einquitin sell their first paintings and Van Gogh exchanges paintings with Paul Gogen. Debates on art, artists, and their social standing begin at the exhibition and are expanded to include visitors such as Camille Pissarro and her son Lucien, Paul Siniak, Siora. In February 1888, exhausted by the life of Paris, Van Gogh left the city, taking about 200 paintings in two years. A few hours before leaving, he was accompanied by Theo to visit Soraya in his studio.
In February 1888, Van Gogh found refuge in Arl due to drunkenness and smoking cough. He seemed to be moving in the creative colonies (a small place where creative individuals live interacting with each other). He was accompanied for two months by Danish painter Christian Maurier Peterson, for whom Arl initially seemed exotic. In one of the letters, he describes the location as a foreign land. "French couples, public houses, the wonderful little Arlesien who seems to go to the sacrament, the priests who give the impression of a dangerous rhinoceros, the people who drink the absent, all seem to be from another world."
The years spent in Arles are one of Van Gogh's most productive regions, here he painted 200 paintings and about 100 watercolor paintings. The artist was fascinated by the local landscape and light. His works in this period are rich in yellow, lavender, purple. The pictures depict wheat fields, crops, rural sights, windmills. One of these paintings is "The Old Mill" (1888), one of the seven paintings sent to Pont Aven on October 4, 1888, exchanged with the works of Paul Gogen, Emil Bernard, Charles Laval, and others.
Van Gogh's early landscapes seem smooth, without perspective, but the use of color predominates. New manifestations of the artist are reflected in the scale of the paintings. In March 1888, he painted landscapes using a "grid perspective." Three of the works were on display at the Independent Salon. In April, he was visited by American artist Dodge MacKnight, who lived not far from Conwy. On May 1, 1888, Van Gogh signs a monthly rental contract for 15 francs for the Yellow House at 2 Lampard. The rooms were without furniture and had not been inhabited for several months.
On May 7, Van Gogh moved from the Carrel Hotel to the ‘Café de la Gare’ , which was under the direction of Joseph and Marie Guinness. The yellow house had to be transformed before it could be established there. The artist wanted the studio to showcase his paintings: "Van Gogh's Chair" (1888), "Bedroom Arl" (1888), "Night Cafe" (1888), "Night Cafe Terrace" (1888), "From the Star" Night on Ron "(1888), Still Life. Vase with 12 sunflowers (1888), all intended as a decoration for the Yellow House.
Van Gogh wrote that in "Night Cafe" he wanted to express the idea that a cafe is a place where you can "destroy yourself, get mad or commit a crime." When he visited St. Marie de la Mer in June, he taught lessons to lieutenant Paul Eugene Millet and painted boats at sea and in the village. McKay introduced Van Gogh to Belgian artist Ejen Bosch, who sometimes stayed in Conwy, they made mutual visits in July.
Visit Paul Gogen (1888)
When Paul Guggen agrees to visit Arles in 1888, Van Gogh hopes to fulfill his long-standing dream of a collective friendship with artists. While waiting, he painted "Sunflowers" in August. When Eugene Bosch visits Van Gogh again, he paints a portrait of him, as well as a book entitled The Poet Against the Starry Sky.
As part of the preparations for Paul Gogan's visit, Van Gogh buys two beds at the advice of the post office manager Joseph Rulin (Van Gogh painted Roulin's portrait). On September 17, he was staying for the first time at Yellow House. When Gogen agrees to stay in Arl and work with him, Van Gogh begins to work on his "Yellow House Ornaments" series, which is perhaps the most ambitious project he has undertaken. He is completing two jobs: The Van Gogh Chair and the Gogen Armchair.
After Van Gogh's many exhortations, Gogen arrives in Arles on October 23, and in November they are painting together. Guggen depicts Van Gogh while painting sunflowers. Van Gogh paints with memory at the suggestion of Gogen. One of these paintings is "Memories of the Garden in Etienne". Their first joint work was a painting by Alice Alyscamps. Goguen's only painting during this visit was the "Van Gogh painting of sunflowers."
Van Gogh and Gogen visit Montpellier in December 1888, where they see the works of Curbé and Delacroix in the Zabra Museum. But soon the relationship between the two artists deteriorates. Van Gogh admired Guggen and wanted him to be treated equally, but Guggen was arrogant and had a dominant character, which upset Van Gogh. They often argued, Van Gogh is increasingly concerned that Paul Gogen will quit, and the situation that Vincent has described as "extremely tense" is turning into a crisis.
In the Arl Hospital (December 1888)
The exact sequence of events that led Van Gogh to cut off his ear is unknown. 15 years after the incident, Gogen stated that the night was preceded by threats of harsh behavior. Their relationship has been complicated. It is possible that Theo borrowed money from Gogen, and Gogen suspected the brothers were abusing him financially. Van Gogh may have felt that Gogen was going to leave. The following days there was heavy rain, forcing the two artists to stay in the Yellow House. Gogen later reported that Van Gogh had followed him when he left for a walk and "attacked him with a razor in his hand." This information has not been confirmed. Gogen was most likely missing from Yellow House that night and staying at the hotel.
After a dispute with Gogen, Van Gogh returned to his room, where, after sound hallucinations, he cut his left ear with a razor, resulting in severe bleeding. The next morning, Van Gogh was found unconscious by police and taken to a hospital where he was examined by Dr. Felix Ray, a young, inexperienced physician. The ear was also rushed to the hospital, but Dr. Ray did not even try to recover it because it had been a long time.
Van Gogh recalled that he had been in acute psychological distress. The hospital's diagnosis noted "a sharp mania with pronounced insanity." Police have insisted that he remain under medical supervision for several days. Gogen immediately reported the incident to Theo, who had married his longtime friend, Andres Bonger's sister, Johanna. Theo rushes to the station the same evening to catch the night train to Arl. He came to Vincent on Christmas Eve and tried to calm his brother. On the same night, he left Arles, leaving for Paris.
In the early days of treatment, Van Gogh repeatedly petitioned Paul Gogen, who was ordered by the police to be kind to the artist, not to tell him about his intention to go to Paris. Goguen's appearance could even be fatal for Van Gogh. Gogen escapes from Arl and never meets Van Gogh again. The artists keep the correspondence, and in 1890 Gogen offers Vincent his painting studio. Van Gogh is being visited by other people at the hospital, including Marie Chinou and Rowlin.
Despite a pessimistic diagnosis, Van Gogh is recovering and returning to the Yellow House on January 7, 1889. Next month he spends at home and in the hospital, suffering from hallucinations and the delirium of poisoning. In March, police closed the house on the grounds of protests by 30 citizens, including the Chin family. Van Gogh returns to the hospital. In March, he was visited twice by Paul Snyak, and in April Van Gogh was moved from the hospital ward to a room rented by Dr. Rey as long rains and floods damaged the paintings in his home. Two months later he left Arles and moved to St. Remy de Provence by his own will. Around the same time, he wrote: "Sometimes I get an indescribable sadness when the eyes of time and death seem to be in the dominant instant."
In 1899, Van Gogh donated a "Portrait of Dr. Felix Ray" to Dr. Rey, but the physician, not a fan of painting, used it in a convent. In 2016, the painting was moved to the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and valued at $ 50 million.
Saint Remy (May 1889 - May 1890)
Van Gogh entered the Saint Paul de Mausoleum Psychiatric Hospital on May 8, 1889, accompanied by his Protestant clergyman, Frederic Sales. St. Paul was a monastery in St. Remy, 30 km from Arles. The hospital was run by Navy physician Theophilus Perron. Van Gogh had two cells with closed windows, one of which was used as a studio. The hospital and its garden have become Vincent's main painting objects. He studies the interior of the hospital, paints the lobby of the hospital and Saint Remy. Some works in this period are characterized by spirals, such as "Starry Night." During this time he also draws roses and olives. In September 1889, he painted two more versions of Arley's bedroom.
Unable to get out of the hospital, Van Gogh began to work on other artists, such as the works of Jean François Millet and his earlier work. Van Gogh was fascinated by the work of realists Jules Breton, Gustav Curbey and Millet, and he compared his duplicates to Beethoven's musical interpretations.
He created his painting "The Walk of Prisoners" (1890) after an engraving by Gustav Dore. Trollbott noted that the view of the inmate of the district center reflects the very view of the artist, artist Ian Hulsker denied that view.
In the months of February-April 1890, Van Gogh lives in a difficult period. He later wrote to his brother that he had created some small paintings "from memories of the north." One of these works is the painting "Two peasant women digging at sunset". Hulsker believes that this small series of paintings is the nucleus of many of the paintings depicting the landscapes and characters that Van Gogh created in the area. He noted that the painter's illness had a significant impact on the paintings. Van Gogh asked his brother and mother to send him works of his early 1880s to work on. Hulsker's painting of the "Elderly Elder" ("On the Threshold of Eternity") belonging to this period identifies "yet another perfect memory of ancient times." In his words, the late artist's works represent the possibilities of the artist who, as Robert Hughes describes, strive for "conciseness and grandeur."
French poet, painter Albert Aurier in the January 1890 issue of the Mercure de France magazine gave Van Gogh the term "genius." In February, Van Gogh painted five versions of Ms. Jinou, using coal paintings made by Guggen, when in November 1888 the woman served as a master for both artists. In February, Van Gogh was invited to the "Union of the XX", an association of avant-garde artists in Brussels to participate in their annual exhibition. At an open lunch organized by union members, Henri de Groo criticized Van Gogh's work. Toulouse-Lautrec has demanded an explanation, and Paul Siniak has stated that if Lotrec surrenders, he will continue the fight for Van Gogh's honor. De Grue apologized for what happened, leaving the union. Later, while the exhibition was going on, Claude Monet said in Paris that his work was the best at the exhibition. Van Gogh wrote after his nephew was born: "I started creating pictures for him by hanging them in the bedroom, they are blooming tokens against a blue sky. "
Auvers-Sur-Oise (May-July, 1890)
In May 1890, Van Gogh left St. Remy's Hospital and settled on Auvers-Sur-Oise, like Theo, to be closer to physician Paul Gache. Gashi was an amateur artist and interacted with several different artists, including Camille Pissaro (he was the one who recommended this doctor's service). Van Gogh wrote about his first impression of a doctor: "Mr. Gashen, in my opinion, is also as sick and nervous as you or you, moreover, he is older than us and lost his wife several years ago, but he is a doctor until the bones of the brain, so his profession and belief in it help keep him in balance.”
Artist Charles-François Dobigny moved to Over in 1861, in turn attracting other artists, Camille Coro and Onore Domieri. In July 1890, Van Gogh completed two paintings by Dobiny in the Garden, one of which is probably the artist's last work.
In recent weeks in St Remy, his thoughts have returned to northern memories. Many of the over 70 oil paintings reminiscent of northern scenes. In June 1890 he painted some paintings by a physician, including the portrait of Doctor Gache, the author's sole offset. In each of the pictures, Gache's melancholy situation is emphasized. Other pictures are probably not complete, one of them is also a picture of "Covered huts on the hill".
In July, Van Gogh wrote that he had plunged into a vast plain near the hillside, which was "as deep as the sea, delicate yellow." At first, he was attracted to the wheat fields when they were green. In July, the artist, describing the wheat fields, wrote to Theo, "vast fields of wheat under a stormy sky."
Van Gogh wrote that the fields represent his "sadness and extreme loneliness," and that the paintings can tell what he cannot express in words, so much so that he considers the rural area healthy, refreshing and vital. Canvas on Wheat Field is not the artist's last work; Hulsker observes it in connection with melancholy and infinite loneliness. Hulsker considers seven works created after this painting.
The death of Van Gogh
On July 27, 1890, at the age of 37, Van Gogh committed suicide with a revolver in his chest. There were no witnesses. He died 30 hours after the accident. The shooting could have been fired in the wheat field where he was shooting, or in a local sturgeon. The ball passed through his ribs, chest, without damaging the internal organs, probably resting on the spine. He was able to return to Auerberg Rau, where he was visited by two doctors, but without the presence of a surgeon, the ball could not be removed. The doctors left him in his room after doing their work, and they smoked a pipe. The next morning Theo hurried to his brother, finding him in good spirits, but a few hours later Vincent's condition worsened due to a wound infection. He died on the morning of July 29. According to Theo, Vincent's last words were: "The sorrow will be prolonged forever."
Van Gogh was buried on July 30 at the Overseas Sur Waz City Cemetery. The funeral was attended by Theo van Gogh, Andris Bonger, Charles Laval, Lucien Pissaro, Emil Bernard, Julien Tang, Paul Goshen, family members, friends, locals. Theo was ill and his health deteriorated after his brother's death. Unable to survive the loss of his brother, he died on January 25, 1891, in Den Dolder and was buried in Utrecht. In 1914, his wife, Johanna Van Gogh-Bonger, organized the exhumation of Theo's body and moved his body from Utrecht to Vincent to bury it in Overseas Sur Waz.
There have been many disputes about Van Gogh's disease and many views have been raised. There was no disagreement that Van Gogh was ill, but he was in good health from time to time. For the first time in 1947, Perry put forward the theory of bipolar affective disorder, and this view was supported by psychologists Humphrey and Bloomer. Biochemist Wilfred Arnold opposes this view, noting that the link between affective disorder and art can be false. A version of temporary epilepsy with diabetic seizures has also been suggested. Whatever the diagnosis, the artist's health may have deteriorated from malnutrition, melancholy, insomnia, and alcohol.
The qualitative development of the artist
Vincent van Gogh painted watercolor from an early age, but only a few works from the school district have survived. When he started painting at an early age, the artist started from an elementary level. Since 1882, his uncle, Cornelius Marinus, who owns a contemporary art salon in Amsterdam, has asked him to paint in The Hague, but Van Gogh's paintings have not met his expectations. Marinus again asked Van Gogh for pictures detailing the needed pictures, but the result was still unsatisfactory. Van Gogh was persistent. he experimented with lighting using different materials in the paintings. For nearly a year he has worked on individual characters using black and white, which has often served as a basis for criticism. Later they were considered the first valuable works of the artist.
In August 1882, Theon sent Vincent money to buy paintings. Vincent wrote that he could continue to paint, "filled with new energy." Since 1883, he has begun to work on many characters, but when his brother criticized them for lack of freshness and vitality, he removed them and began painting with oil. Van Gogh has turned to prominent artists in The Hague, such as Weisenbuch and Bloomers, for technical advice. He was also assisted by painters De Boc and Van der Welle, both of whom represented the second generation of The Hague School. When he moved to Eugene, he painted several large-scale works, most of which he destroyed. The only thing saved is the Potato Eaters. After visiting the Amsterdam State Museum, Van Gogh expressed his admiration for the Dutch masters, especially Rembrandt and Francis Halsey. He knew that many of his shortcomings were due to a lack of experience and technique, so he went to Antwerp in 1885 and then to Paris to improve his skills.
Van Gogh portrayed the poor, the miners of Bornaj, and later the peasants, craftsmen, fishermen, who became acquainted with the lifestyle of the Dutch in 1881-1885. Since 1883, Van Gogh has produced his first noteworthy, love-filled paintings for ordinary people ("Peasant," "Potato Eaters," "Women Who Lead Coal," "The Unusual Woman," "Before Heaven," "The Old Man," etc.); where he expressed the mental tension, suffering, and depression of the ancients. Theo criticized the painting "Potato Eaters" for dark colors, calling them incompatible with modern style. While in Paris, in 1886-1887, Vincent tried a new, lighter palette. Since that time, his work has changed to darker colors of pure blue, gold, red and bright colors ("Bridge of the Sun", 1887, "Portrait of Tang's father", 1887, etc.). In 1888, Van Gogh moved to the French city of Arles, where his unique creative style finally developed. The portrait of Tang's father demonstrates his success in brighter colors, evidencing the development of an individual style. Charles Blaney's treatise on colors made him very interested in making additional colors work. Van Gogh concluded that the effect of color goes beyond the sphere of description. He said: "Color already expresses something in itself". According to Hughes, Van Gogh was already perceiving the color of moral and psychological value, such as in "Night Cafe", a work in which the artist sought to express "the terrible passions of mankind." Yellow is a great value for the artist, symbolizing the emotional truth. He has used yellow as a symbol of light, life, and God.
Van Gogh sought to become an artist of rural life and nature. During his first summer in Arles, he used his new palette to paint traditional landscapes and rural environments. His belief in the power of the natural force made him grasp that power and present it in his paintings, sometimes using symbols. His seed, depicted by Jean-François Millet, represents the artist's religious beliefs. The sower, who is Christ, sowed life under the bright sun. These were the topics that the artist often addressed, developing and developing. The painter's paintings are full of symbols, but instead of using traditional Christian iconography, he creates his style where life blooms under the sun and works are the metaphor of life. In Arl, where he painted the sunflowers, flooded with bright sunlight, he was ready to paint the Seed.
The painter expressed his attitude and attitude towards the world in contrast to the colors. In landscapes created in the bright and warm colors of the South, “Harvest. La Croix Valley, "Fishing Boats in St. Mary's", both in 1888, reflected his love and attitude for beauty and happiness. In some works, he depicted characters expressing human loneliness and powerlessness in the "Night Cafe Arlow", 1888. The dynamics of color and vibrancy give life and vibrancy not only to nature and humans in Arles Red Grapes, 1888 but also to the inanimate objects in Van Gogh's Arl Bedroom, 1888. The strenuous work of the painter's last years has been accompanied by a shock of mental illness when he cut off his ear.
Van Gogh created a style he called "the illusion of reality" and criticized overly stylized works. He later wrote that abstraction from "Starry Night" had gone too far, and that reality had retreated to the background. Hughes described the moment as an ecstasy of extreme foresight. The stars are in a large rotation, reminiscent of Hokusai's "Big Wave". The rotation in the sky was later reflected by the rotation of the pupils on the ground, and the artist began to work with thick, pointed brushes.
Van Gogh created a collection of paintings from 1885 until his death in 1890 that expressed his unique worldview and which could have been commercially successful. He was influenced by the style of Charles Blaney, who as a true painter gave utmost importance to the color, perspective, application of brushes. Van Gogh called his paintings "targeted" as opposed to paintings he considered research. Many pictures were simply made as color experiments or as gifts for friends. The Arli period has had a significant impact on the artist's creative life. He considered most important his paintings "Seeds", "Night Cafe", "Memories of the Garden in Etienne", "Starry Night". These paintings with their thick brushes and outlines represent the style that the artist was looking for. Van Gogh's recent works are distinguished by color combinations, sharp expression of rhythm, abrupt changes of mood, extreme despair, and bursts ("The Road to Puppets and Stars," 1890), and some works in bright and peaceful mood ("Overnight Rain," 18 "Church in the Over," 1890, etc.). Van Gogh's best canvases are Arlesian (1888), Shoes (1887) Postman Roule (1888), Sunset at Sunset (1888), Self-portrait with a Calf (1888), Portrait of Doctor Gachet. (1890), "At the Gates of Eternity" (1890), etc.
The style of Van Gogh's paintings is marked by the regions he has spent in various parts of Europe. He tended to penetrate the local culture, though maintaining his style. The artist has done a lot of work in series, most of which is still life. His development as an artist was slow, and he had some limitations. Van Gogh was often returning home to receive new impulses. Various influences developed his technical skills. Art historian Melissa McQuillan believes that this development reflects recent stylistic changes, and Van Gogh has taken steps to avoid conflict as she faces the difficulties of overcoming the situation as an ideal artist.
Since the first exhibitions organized in the late 1880s, Van Gogh's reputation has grown among artists, merchants, artists, collectors. In 1887, Andre Antoine hung Van Gogh's works at the Libre Theater in Paris alongside the works of George Siora and Paul Sneak. later, some work was acquired by Julien Tang. In 1889, the artist's work was described by Albert Aurie in Modern Painting Magazine, who described the paintings as "intense sunlight". Van Gogh's paintings were exhibited at the Union of Independent Artists in Brussels in January 1890. President of the French Republic Sadie Carno, who also visited the exhibition, was impressed by Van Gogh's works.
After Van Gogh's death, commemorative exhibitions were organized in Brussels, Paris, The Hague, and Antwerp. His work has been exhibited in some high-quality exhibitions, including the "XX Union". In 1891 a retrospective exhibition was organized in Brussels. In 1892, Octavo Mirbo wrote that "Van Gogh's suicide was an infinitely sad loss for art, though large numbers of people did not gather for the funeral, and poor Van Gogh, whose death meant the extinction of a gigantic flame, had just died and had died. who lived. "
Theo van Gogh died in January 1891, remaining Vincent's best friend and correspondent. Theo's widow, Johannes van Gogh-Bonger, a twenty-year-old Dutchess who had briefly known her husband and granddaughter, Vincent, had to take care of several hundred paintings and letters, as well as her young son, Vincent William van Gogh. Paul Guggen was not inclined to offer his help in recognizing the art of Van Gogh. Johannes Brother Andre Bonger was also indifferent to Van Gogh's paintings. Aurier, one of Van Gogh's early admirers of critics, died of typhoid at the age of 27.
In 1892, Emil Bernard organized a small exhibition of Van Gogh's works in Paris, where Julien Tang presented Van Gogh's paintings. In April 1894, collector Paul Duran Ruel agreed to acquire ten paintings from the Van Gogh collection. In 1896, yet unknown artist Henry Matisse visited artist John Peter Russell on Belle Island. Russell, being one of Van Gogh's close friends, showed Matisse one of the Dutch deeds, presenting one of them to him. Under the influence of Van Gogh, Matisse incorporated bright colors into his frame.
Van Gogh's art not appreciated in time His work gained worldwide recognition some 100 years later. The artist's work reflects a difficult, breakthrough period in the history of European culture. Van Gogh's works are preserved in the best museums in the world (Moscow Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Chrysler-Muller State, New York Metropolitan, Auguste Roden, etc.).
Van Gogh's first major wave of recognition in Austria and Germany appeared before World War I when his correspondence was published in three volumes in 1914. The artist's letters are expressive, literate, and listed as original works of the 19th century. They have become an integral part of the artist's myths about the progressive artist who suffered greatly for his art, dying at a young age. In 1934, writer Irving Stone wrote an autobiographical novel about Van Gogh's life, "The Thirst of Life," based on Van Gogh's letters to Theo. This book and the 1956 film further enhanced the artist's recognition in the United States, where, according to Stone, only a few hundred people knew about the artist before.
Van Gogh's works are among the most expensive in the world. In the US, more than $ 100 million has been sold for "Portrait of Dr. Gache," "Portrait of Postman Joseph Rulin." In 1993, the Metropolitan Museum acquired the "Wheatfield with a picture" for $ 57 million. In 2015, the Aluscamp painting was sold for $ 40 million at a Sotheby's auction in the United States.
Van Gogh has lived and created while suffering spiritually. The issue of his illness and its impact on his work to date have sparked controversy: More than 150 psychiatrists have tried to find a name for the artist's illness and have been offered 30 different diagnoses.
Van Gogh's mental anguish has been particularly acute in the last years of his life, which, according to Paul Gogen's autobiography, caused him to cut his left ear.
Van Gogh has been called a crater on the planet Mercury.
Van Gogh's Museum
Van Gogh's cousin, named after Vincent Willem van Gogh (1890-1978), inherited the property in 1925 after his mother's death. In the early 1950s, he organized a new full-length publication of the artist's stamp in four volumes in several languages. He then negotiated with the Dutch government to subsidize the purchase of an area that would display the artist's entire collection. Theo's son participated in the design of the bid with the expectation that the work would work in the best conditions. The project started in 1963. Architect Gerrit Rietveld was commissioned to design the museum building, and in 1964, after his death, Kisho Kurokawa took charge of the building. Works were carried out in the 1960s, and a solemn opening took place in 1972.
The Van Gogh Museum was opened in Amsterdam's Museum Square in 1973, becoming the second most visited museum in the Netherlands, 1.5 million people visit here annually. In 2015 it had a record 19.9 million visitors. About 85% of visitors come from other countries.