Vladimir Putin's Biography

Vladimir Vladimir

Vladimir Putin

About

  • Born
    07 October 1952
  • Died
  • Sex
    Male
  • Nationality
    Russian
  • Citizen
    Russian

Childhood and adolescence

Born on October 7, 1952, in Leningrad.

Putin's father, Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin February 23 - August 2, 1999 - Participated in the Great Patriotic War. , after the war in the factory named after Master Yegorov.

His mother, Maria Shemelova, also worked at the factory from 1911 to 1998, surviving the Leningrad blockade.

The grandfather, Spiridon Putin, was a well-known cook who trained high-ranking party and state officials. he even worked for Lenin and Stalin.

Vladimir was the third son of the family; two older brothers born in the 1930s died in infancy. In 2012, it became known that a brother named Victor was born in 1940 and died of diphtheria in 1942. Buried in Piskarov cemetery. His second brother's name was Albert, and he died before the war.

The Putin family lived in an apartment with no communal facilities. Becoming president, Putin said he had been fascinated by Soviet films since childhood and dreamed of working in the state security system.

In 1960-1965, Vladimir Putin studied at the 193 eighth grade school, after which he enrolled at the 281 high schools, a chemistry-based specialty school of technology that he graduated in 1970.

In 1970-1975 he studied at the International Department of Law at Leningrad State University. He first met Anatoly Sobchak, who was then an associate professor at the LSU.

Service in the State Security Committee

In 1975, Putin graduated from the Faculty of Law of the Soviet Union. The assignment was sent to the State Security Committee to work. In 1975 he completed Operational Staff Training courses at the 401st School in Okta as a Senior Lieutenant.

After 1977 he worked in the Investigative Division of the KGB Leningrad Department of Counter Intelligence.

After 1977 he worked in the Investigative Division of the Leningrad Division of the State Security Committee. In 1979 he completed six months of State Security Committee training in Moscow and returned to Leningrad.

From 1985-1990 he worked in Germany. The service was conducted at the Dresden Regional Intelligence Unit, working under the cover of the post of Director of the USSR-GF Friendship House. During his business trip, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and Senior Assistant to the Division Chief. In 1989 he was awarded the Silver Medal of "Services for the National People's Army of the FRG".

Upon completion of a foreign trip, he returns to the USSR and, in his words, refuses to move to Moscow, the USSR State Security Committee headquarters.

Work in St. Petersburg

Since the beginning of spring 1990, his official job has been A. A. Leningrad State University after Zhdanov. At Leningrad State University, Putin became Rector Stanislav Merkurev's assistant in international affairs.

Since June 12, 1991 A. After being elected mayor of Sobchak, he was chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee of St. Petersburg City Hall. Putin's position as chairman of the committee included investment attractions to St. Petersburg, relations with foreign companies, the formation of joint ventures. Putin was the co-ordinator of St. Petersburg's first money exchange and facilitated the entry of some German companies into St. Petersburg. Putin's participation in Russia opened one of the first banks with foreign capital - BNP-Dresdner Bank. Putin was one of the organizers of the Russian-American "Goodwill Games" and then met Ted Turner, America's largest mass media entrepreneur.

Since 1993, Sobchak has been leaving Putin as his deputy during his travels abroad.

1994 In March 2008, he was appointed First Deputy Prime Minister of St. Petersburg, holding the position of Head of the Foreign Relations Committee. As head of the St. Petersburg government, Putin's responsibilities included co-operation and co-ordination work between the municipality and territorial law enforcement agencies and law enforcement agencies (General Department of the Interior, Ministry of Defense, Federal Security Service, Prosecutor's Office, Courts, Customs Committee). Putin was under the control of the Registration Chamber, as well as the City Hall departments of justice, public relations, administrative bodies, hotels.

In 1995 he headed the territorial division of "Our Home is Russia" party.

Together with the Foreign Relations Committee, Putin also headed the City Hall Operational Committee.

As a result, many of the staff at St. Petersburg City Hall with Putin (IE Sechin, DA Medvedev, VA Zubkov, AAB Miller, GO, Greff, DN Kozak, VP Ivanov, SE Naryshkin, VL Mutko, and others) In the 2000s, he held senior positions in the Russian government, Russian Presidential Administration and state-owned companies.

In 1992, the Lenkhor Parliamentary Working Group, led by Marina Selley and Yuri Gladkov, the so-called "Salee Commission", filed charges of machinations in the provision of food for raw materials in St. Petersburg. According to Putin, the actual Salee commission did not conduct any investigation, and "no one could be prosecuted for anything." According to Putin, this scandal was used by some Lenkhor deputies to influence Sobchak to get him fired.

In July 2008, during the arrest of some Russian citizens in Spain by police, some media again focused on earlier publications devoted to Putin's ties with Putin in the 1990s to alleged leader of the "Tambovian" criminal group, Vladimir Koumarinos was convicted of the charge and sentenced.

Work in Moscow

For three years, Putin has been sworn in as the secretary of state for the Security Council.

In August 1996, when Anatoly Sobchak was defeated in the governorship election, he was hired as Moscow's deputy chief of affairs for Russian President Pavel Borodin. Here, Putin headed the legal and overseas property divisions of Russia.

On March 26, 1997, he was appointed Deputy Chief of Staff of the President of the Russian Federation, Head of the General Control Department of the President of the Russian Federation L. Kudrin.

According to Putin, the results of inspections by the General Department of Control on defense orders were one of the reasons for the dismissal of Russian Defense Minister Igor Radionov in May 1997.

In 1997, Putin, as head of the General Department of Control, commissioned a special task force to conduct checks on the effectiveness of Russian fishing. As a result of the work of the committee, it turned out: "The 6500 tonnes of red salmon captured by Japanese vessels in 1997 and the 3300 tonnes of this type of fish from Russian vessels working on scientific programs have resulted in lake red salmon overfishing, and the actual bankruptcies on the coast of Kamchat are his reserves. " After the commission's work, the fishing industry's areas have been shown to change, and over the next decade, the catch of red salmon has increased several times, from 2500 tonnes to 20,000 tonnes.

May 28, 1998, Appointed Deputy Chief of Staff of the President of the Russian Federation responsible for the work with the regions. At the time of appointment, he was considered one of the most influential figures in the Kremlin.

Since July 25, 1998, he has been the Director of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation.

From March 26, 1999, Putin was appointed Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, also holding the position of Director.

In early May 1999, President Yeltsin decided to transfer his power to Putin. During a meeting with Putin on August 5, Yeltsin announced that he wanted to appoint him prime minister.

Prime Minister (August-December 1999)

On August 9, 1999, he was appointed First Deputy Prime Minister and Acting Prime Minister of the Russian Federation. The same day, President Yeltsin called him his successor on his television channel. On August 16, 1999, 233 votes of the State Duma members (84 against and 17 abstentions) were approved as Prime Minister.

Putin's appointment coincided with the start of large-scale actions by federal forces in Dagestan against terrorists entering Dagestan. Putin led these actions, acting as a zealous organizer. As of September 15, all terrorists had already been expelled from Dagestan.

According to the historian A. Barsenkov, Vladimir Putin, appeared as a man "capable of spiritually and morally uniting the Russians with hopes of restoring stability, order and a better life to the young prime minister." The rise of Putin's popularity testifies to the success of his "Unity" political movement, which garnered 23.3% of the vote in the Duma, taking second place.

On December 30, 1999, some Russian editors also published Putin's article "Russia on the threshold of the millennium", in which he wrote about his perceptions of the past and future of the country. According to Putin, Russia needs strong political power and unification of the public. Speaking about economic issues, he announced the need for a fight against poverty, the welfare of the population and a policy of modern efficiency in the Russian economy.

Invasion of militants Dagestan and residential buildings blasts in September 1999

In September 1999, a series of terrorist acts, including the bombings of apartment buildings in Banyak, Moscow, and Volgodonsk, killed more than 300 people. According to a ruling by the Moscow City Court and the Russian General Court, the blasts were organized by Karachi and Dagestan Wahhabis, ordered by Arab mercenaries Amir Khatib and Abu Umar.

Opinions have emerged suggesting that Putin would benefit from the explosions of residential buildings to boost his pre-election ratings, win the presidential election and form a favorable public opinion before deploying Chechnya. In particular, the book of Alexander Litvinenko and Yuri Zelstinsky confirms that the explosions of residential buildings were carried out with the knowledge of Putin and Nikolai Patrushev. Putin characterized this version as lazy.

Head of State

On December 31, 1999, as a result of Yeltsin's early retirement, Putin became acting president of the Russian Federation. Yeltsin handed over his powers to Putin in the Kremlin office of the Russian president at 11 am in the presence of Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexey II. Putin also received the Orthodox blessing of the Patriarch in the difficult task of governing the country. At noon when the broadcast was interrupted, the channels broadcast Yeltsin's message announcing his resignation and successor. On the same day, Putin was given the emblems of the presidential power, including the "nuclear suitcase". The first state document signed by the acting president of the Russian Federation Putin on "Guarantees of the President of the Russian Federation and his family members who have ceased to perform their duties". The decree guaranteed the former Russian presidents (at that time only Yeltsin) such immunity.

On March 26, 2000, he was elected President of the Russian Federation. He took office on May 7, 2000.

In May 2000, Mikhail Kasyanov was appointed Prime Minister of Russia.

On February 24, 2004, Kasyanov's government dismissed him as "generally satisfactory". Mikhail Fradkov became the new prime minister.

On March 14, 2004, he was re-elected President of the Russian Federation for the second time. He took office on May 7, 2004.

On September 12, 2007, Fradkov's government was dismissed, appointing Viktor Zubkov as Prime Minister.

On May 7, 2008, the government transferred the newly elected president to his former chief of staff, Dmitry Medvedev. A few days before that, Putin came in second on Time's "100 Most Powerful People in the World".

Domestic policy

The first major reform of the country's constitutional-political system in August 2000 was a change in the order of the Federal Council, as a result of which governors and heads of provincial legislatures, who had previously served in the Federal Council, were replaced by significant representatives. they had to work in the Federal Council on a permanent and professional basis, with one of them being the governor and the second a provincial legislature. To recoup the lobbying opportunities lost by the governors, an advisory body, the State Council, was created.

A few days after the Beslan terrorist attack in September 2004, Putin announced his intention to annul the provincial elections, citing a move to intensify the fight against terrorism. According to a survey by the All-Russian Center for Public Opinion Research, this was done against the will of 48% of respondents. The majority opposed Putin. There was also a shift to the order of election of State Duma deputies by party lists. In the State Duma, the territorial representation was abolished, with half of the members of the Federal Council being appointed by the governors, who in turn were appointed by the President.

As a result of the December 2003 elections, the United Russia Party, which was supported by the president, received the majority of votes in the State Duma, with Boris Gryzlov becoming the State Duma Speaker. Second, third and fourth places were occupied by the Communist Party of Russia, the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia and the Homeland Group respectively. By winning the majority of independent MPs, single-mandate MPs, all National Party MPs, and those fleeing from other parties, United Russia won the constitutional majority, which allowed clear opposition to the opposition during the vote.

In 2005, a law was passed on the State Duma only for election by party lists. The State Duma then adopted amendments to the federal legislation that allowed the parties winning the territorial elections to propose to the Russian president their candidacy for governor. In the vast majority of regions, this right was reserved for United Russia. The governors' entry into the ruling party began to take on a mass character. In early 2007, 70 of the 86 governors of Russia were considered party members. Managers of large industrial companies, heads of state universities and subordinates, as well as senior officials of federal and provincial authorities were also members of United Russia.

In February 2006, Vladislav Surkov, Deputy Chief of Staff to the President of the Russian Federation, put forward the concept of sovereign democracy, which, according to the author, is that the policy of the President should first of all be supported by the people of Russia. Such support for the majority is the very principle of a democratic society.

Chechnya Second War

In 1999, during the activation phase of the armed struggle against the Chechen separatists, several terrorist acts took place in Russia that resulted in massive human casualties.

In an interview with reporters on September 30, 1999, Putin promised that there would be no new Chechen war. He also stated that "hostilities are already underway, our troops have not entered Chechnya for more than a couple of weeks, they have been ruling the highlands for two weeks, liberating them and so on." As Putin said, "one has to be patient and do the job of completely clearing the region of terrorists. If we don't do it today, they will come back, and all the sacrifices will be pointless. " On the same day, tank units of the Russian army entered the Naursk and Shchelkovsky regions of Chechnya from the Stavropol region and Dagestan.

On October 23, 2002, Chechen rioters captured about 800 people in the Nord-Ost musical at the Dubrovka (Moscow) Theater Center building. Four days after the North Ossetian capture, the use of special gases to kill the terrorists freed the hostages, killing all the terrorists and releasing most of the hostages.

On October 27, 2002, Chief Medical Officer of Moscow Andrey Seltsovsky, speaking about the gas used during the attack, stated that "they do not die in the immediate state of application of such special measures." According to Seltsovsky, the impact of special gas was only compounded by some destructive factors that have rendered hostage in terrorist situations. Also, two hostages died from gunshot wounds. Authorities declined to reveal the structure of the gas, claiming that "this information is a state secret". Some former hostages and relatives of the victims later voiced objections to the authorities regarding the course of negotiations, the operation of liberation, the provision of assistance, the investigation and other similar circumstances. The authorities were accused of not being concerned about the safety of the hostages but took all measures to conceal the actual circumstances of the deaths and operations.

In 2003, there were explosions in Moscow, on the 1st Tverskoy-Yamskoy Street and in Tushino (Moscow) at the Wings rock festival.

On February 6, 2004, an explosion occurred in the Moscow subway. 43 people were killed. On May 9, a bomb exploded in Grozny, at Dynamo Stadium.

On May 9, 2004, President of the Chechen Republic Ahmad Kadyrov was killed.

The terrorist attacks continued on June 22 in the attack on the Ingush towns of Nazran and Gharabulak, on August 24 with two Tu-154 and Tu-134 blasts, and on August 31 near the Rizhskaya metro station in Moscow.

On September 1, 2004, Chechen terrorists occupied the 1st school for Beslan. The capture killed 331 people, including 318 hostages, 186 of whom were children.

In 2010, after a long hiatus, Moscow again carried out terrorist acts in the Caucasus. On March 29, suicide bombers blew up their Lubyanka and Park of Culture subway stations, killing 41 and injuring 88.

On January 24, 2011, a terrorist attack took place at the Domodedovo airport, killing 37 people and injuring 173.

Judicial Reform

In 2000, Putin set up a working group to improve judicial legislation. The following year, Putin signed several key laws aimed at reforming the judicial system, the most important of which was "On the Status of the Russian Courts", "On the Judicial System of the Russian Federation", "On the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation", and "On Law and Practice in the Russian Federation."

In 2001 Putin signed the new Russian Criminal Procedure Code. The new Code was fundamentally different from the old, in particular, two additional rights for defendants and victims. Thus, all participants in the litigation are united into two groups: the prosecution and the defense. According to the new Code, the search, arrest, and detention of a suspect in crime are carried out with the permission of the court, and the criminal case is initiated only with the permission of the prosecutor. Not only lawyers but also other persons, in particular, the relatives of the accused, can be defended in court.

In 2002, Putin signed the Russian Arbitration Code. On November 14 of the same year, Putin signed the Russian Civil Procedure Code. According to the Code, disputes between companies were now within the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal. Thus, the new law precluded the possibility of "double" litigation in economic matters, that is, it was impossible to simultaneously deal with economic disputes in arbitration and general courts in the same cases. The subordination of civil cases to the courts of general jurisdiction was also clearly established.

In June 2007, Putin signed the Law on the Establishment of an Investigative Committee under the Prosecutor's Office, so that the investigative bodies were separated from the prosecutor's office. Later, the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation was completely separated from the Prosecutor's Office as an independent federal agency.

On June 21, 2013, Putin proposed to unite the Supreme and Supreme Arbitration Courts of the Russian Federation, which demanded amendments to the Russian Constitution.

Media status

During Putin's presidency, he was accused of pressuring independent mass media. In particular, he was associated with the cases of NTV and TV-6, the closure of the TV channel, the closure of independent newspapers or the change of their owners. Several journalists were killed during Putin's presidency, and in 2008, Reporters Without Borders was ranked 144th out of 173 countries in the 2008 rating of Freedom of Speech.

Vladimir Pozner draws attention to the fact that no journalist was imprisoned during Putin's presidency.

In the third round of Putin's presidency, in January 2013, Russia dropped to 148th out of 179 countries in the "Reporters Without Borders" rating. The main reason for this impeded the objective coverage of opposition demonstrations, the tightening of the law on fraud and the creation of a blacklist of Internet sites.

On April 8, 2013, he signed a law on the publication of non-moral information in the media, which allowed the media to block the use of non-moral vocabulary for multiple purposes. The law was described in the Union of Journalists of Russia as "a death sentence for the media".

December 2013 Pavel Gusev, president of the Moscow Public Chamber of the Moscow region, had to resign from the Moscow Komsomolets newspaper (MK). For the article by Minkin's "Beneficial Sovereign", which was about Putin's amnesty for businessman Mikhail Khodorkovsky. The article was removed from the newspaper's website but became a hit with Puneet.

Youth organizations supporting Putin's policy

During Putin's presidency, some youth organizations were set up, the focus of which was to preserve Russia's independence and integrity, modernize the country, and create a functioning civil society. During his presidency, Putin regularly met with our organization. Some of the actions of this youth organization have received sharp criticism from the press and political opposition․

The situation of national minorities

According to an opinion by Russian human rights defender Vladimir Lukin in 2004, Putin's presidency has been marked by the rise of racism and chauvinism, which critics, including the Social Committee for the Protection of Freedom of Conscience, have led to accusing authorities of bribing people and national minorities. and supporting the hate campaign.

In 2007, Putin signed into law 309, which abolished the regional component of secondary school education and included mandatory second language teaching of some national republics for all pupils in those republics.

Destruction of the "Kursk" submarine

The collapse of the submarine raised criticism not only of the Russian Armed Forces but also of the President. On August 12, 2000, a submarine explosion killed 118 people. there is a hypothesis that several people may have survived and tried to call for help. Rescuers failed to remove the sailors from the sunken submarine, and they died. Official sources did not immediately report the disaster. The rescue operations began just one day later, on August 13 at 18:30 Moscow time. Vladimir Putin ordered only four days later, on August 16, 2000, to seek foreign assistance.

On August 14, Putin issued an order to investigate the causes of the "Kursk" collapse, for which a Governmental Commission was set up under the leadership of Russian Deputy Prime Minister Ilya Klebanov.

Asked about what happened to Kursk AS after the tragedy in an interview with the American CNN, Larry King said: "Putin continues to smile. "Shattered." But just before that question, Larry King asked Putin a humorous question, and then made a sharp transition to a serious question while Putin was still laughing. Then she reported: “Why? What caused it? What is known? ”Putin stopped laughing and told about the accident. Putin's statement is also well-known that there is not much military blame for the submarine's destruction. "That's the way it is, and that's why I'm not going to blame the military."

According to the results of the Kursk crash investigation, 15 commanders and officers of the Northern Fleet were dismissed from their posts for "serious flaws in the daily conduct of the navy's logistical and training activities, as well as Northern Fleet Commander Vyacheslav Popov.

Economic development

Summarizing the economic results of Putin's presidency in 2000-2008, The Wall Street Journal wrote: "The economy not only restored all the positions it lost in the 1990s, but it also created a viable segment of services that almost did not exist in the Soviet era. Russia has the third-largest gold reserves after China and Japan. " In 2007, the President of the People's Republic of China Hu Jintao said: "In recent years, under President Putin's socio-political stability, the country's economy has grown at a rapid pace," he said. The life of the population is improving day by day. " The World Bank's chief economist on Russia in 2008 confirmed that Russia is showing good results against the backdrop of slower global economic growth. According to the economist, Russia can be considered one of the islands of economic stability, reflecting the quality of macroeconomic policy, the growth of domestic demand, the accumulation of gold reserves and the State Reserve Fund.

In Russia in the 1990s, taxation in Russia was rising and unacceptable for businesses, despite the constant tightening of tax legislation, the main part of the economy being in the shadow sector, companies and businesses continued to evade taxes, including through the so-called "tax optimization", actively employed payment in envelopes. In the 2000s, Putin signed some laws that supplemented tax legislation. In 2001, the flat income tax rate for individuals was set at 13%, with Putin insisting the measure would work for 10 years. Also, the profit tax rate was reduced by 24%, the single social tax return scale was introduced, turnover taxes and sales taxes were removed. overall taxes were reduced 3.6 times from 54 to 15. The raw materials' tax system changed radically. The conversion of export tax mechanisms was carried out and the extraction of minerals was introduced, which allowed the increase in the share of oil and gas leases that went into the state budget, from less than 40% in 2000 to 84% in 2000. In 2006, Russian Finance Minister Sergei Shatalov announced that during tax reforms the tax burden decreased from 34-35% to 27.5%, as well as the redistribution of the tax burden in the oil sector. Tax reforms have also contributed to increased tax collection and stimulated economic growth. Tax reform is, according to experts, one of Putin's successes.

In October 2001, Putin signed the new RF Land Code, which consolidated land ownership rights in addition to agricultural land and established a mechanism for its purchase and sale. In July of the following year, Putin signed a federal law on the circulation of agricultural land, which also controlled the purchase and sale of agricultural land.

In a letter to the Federal Council in early 2001, Putin noted that current labor legislation adopted as early as 1971 is outdated and does not meet modern requirements, promoting shadow labor relations. In late 2001, Putin signed the new Labor Code, which came into force on February 1 of the following year. In the opinion of the Economic Expert Group, the new code brought labor legislation into line with "market economy requirements" and provided for "more efficient use of labor resources and increased workability."

Some other socio-economic reforms have been implemented: retirement in 2002, banking in 2001-2004, reductions in benefits in 2005, electricity and rail transport.

In a 2003 presidential address to the Federal Council, Putin set out to achieve the current and capital functions of the Russian ruble. On July 1, 2006, that task was completed.

In May 2003, in the Federal Council's Budget Message, Putin set out to establish a Russian Stabilization Fund. On 1 January 2004, the Stabilization Fund was established. The main purpose of the Fund was to ensure the country's sustainable economic development.

In 2005, Putin announced the launch of four national priority programs in the socio-economic field: Health, Education, Housing and the Development of the Arbitration Code. In January 2008, Putin declared that national programs were more effective than other state programs. [164] In his opinion, such an outcome was achieved through a combination of administrative and political resources.

In a 2006 presidential address to the Federal Council, Putin announced incentives to increase birthrate in Russia - increasing child benefits, investing maternal capital and more.

In a 2007 presidential address to the Federal Council, Putin declared nanotechnology one of the foremost avenues of science and technology and proposed the creation of a Russian corporation of nanotechnology, which was done in July 2007.

Russia sees a significant increase in foreign investment In 2000, the capital outflow in Russia from $ 11 billion to $ 115 billion in 2010, which averaged $ 10-20 billion in the 1990s, changed with its inflow and in 2007 reached a record $ 81 billion.

Experts interviewed by the RBC Daily in February 2008 positively assessed the results of Putin's eight-year economic growth.

According to the US Department of State, the Russian economy grew in 1999-2008 due to the depreciation of the ruble, major economic reforms (tax, banking, labor, and land), a tough budgetary tax policy, as well as a combination of favorable prices for raw materials.

Former USSR Professor of Economic Studies Marshal Goldman coined the term "petrostate" to describe the economic model created by Putin in early 2008. Petrostate: Putin, Power, and the New Russia. In his book, the professor argued that Putin's contribution to economic policy was the creation of large companies controlled by the state "national champions" and the nationalization of key energy assets, resulting in a new class of oligarchs whom he called "power."

In December 2008, economist Anders Aslund declared that Putin's main project was the development of "large, hard-to-manage state masters, who are called" national champions ", who" strangled large sections of the economy in their inaction and bribery. " In 2001-2004 the share of small enterprises in Russia's Gross Domestic Product increased, and in 2007 their number exceeded one million. The share of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Russian GDP in 2009 was 21%.

Speaking at the Strategy-2020 conference on March 2, 2009, Deputy Chief of Staff to Russian President Vladislav Surkov, speaking about the deep financial crisis in Russia in 2008-2010, which saw Russia in 2008, and the sources of growth preceding it.

Time magazine called President Putin the man of 2007. Thus, the Russian leader, among other competitors, was ahead of former US Vice President Albert Gore. "Putin has shown exceptional mastery of country governance, which he adopted in a chaotic state and brought stability," said Richard Stengel, editor-in-chief of the Times magazine.

At the beginning of Putin's presidency in 2000, 30% of Russia's population lived beyond the poverty line, and in 2013 the share of those living beyond the poverty line decreased to 11.2%. The fight against poverty in March 2013 declared one of the key issues. Against this background, the co-operation of pensions in April 2013, averaging 300 rubles, caused the discontent of the pensioners. Thus, the elderly women of Chelyabinsk province sent their retirement benefits to Putin, wishing him "nothing in the least," Radio Liberty, the Job newspaper, some news agencies, and the Internet reported on the scandal.

On March 29, 2013, he signed a decree defining the title of Labor Hero of the Russian Federation.

In April 2013, Putin acknowledged that despite high energy prices, the state of the Russian economy is deteriorating, as investment activity and exports decline, unemployment and capital outflows increase. The state budget was hit hard by the powerful floods of the Far East that began in summer, and Russia has not faced such a catastrophe of its magnitude in its history, Putin said.

On April 15, 2013, Putin's aide and friend, ex-Minister of Finance of Russia Alexei Kudrin admitted that the Russian authorities were severely late in the reforms.

On November 6, 2013, it became known that Putin increased the salary of deputies of the State Duma to 253 thousand rubles per month.

Commenting on Putin's address to the State Duma in December 2013, the German Der Spiegel magazine notes that the Russian public has entered a phase of stagnation, and many are "brainwashed by the crisis of Soviet society under Secretary General Leonid Brezhnev's rule."

The relationship between power and big business

According to The Economist magazine, after Putin became president in 2000, he may have quietly agreed with the oligarchs. The government will turn a blind eye to the alleged violations, provided the oligarchs do well, which means giving up suspicious deals, especially in the early 1990s. Also, in Putin's view, this meant agreeing to stay out of politics.

On February 28, 2000, during a meeting with his proxies, Putin voiced the thesis "Equal Status of Power in All Market Entities", giving the media a new term, "equality of oligarchs", to mark a new direction for big business.

Four days after Putin's inauguration, on May 11, 2000, investigations were carried out at the headquarters of Vladimir Gusinsky's Media-Must CJSC, which was believed by some to be an NTV TV channel affiliated with his political affiliate during the State Duma campaign in the fall of 1999. Contrary to Yuri Luzhkov's and Yevgeny Primakov's block, "Homeland is the whole of Russia," NTV CEO Yevgeny Kiselyov insisted that such an opinion about NTV's role was a widespread delusion. On July 13, 2000, Gusinsky was arrested and spent three days in an investigative cell.

According to Mikhail Gorbachev, in July 2000, Mikhail Lessing, the Minister of Printing at Butirian Prison, suggested that the arrested Gusinsky sign an agreement, which included the so-called "6th secret protocol" to stop Gusinsky's prosecution of Gusinsky from his prosecution.

During the scandal, Lenin announced that Putin was aware of the "Secret Protocol No. 6" signed in Butirka. In May 2004, the European Court of Human Rights, after examining Gusinsky's case, concluded that "the detention of the plaintiff was used as a strategy for conducting commercial negotiations and that public law institutions such as prosecution and prosecution should not be used for this purpose."

In the fall of 2000, Boris Berezovsky emigrated to the UK and sold a central stake in Russia's First Channel (ORT). The debt of Gazprom was taken over by Gusinsky's NTV television channel after the debt was canceled, after which Berezovsky's broadcast of the TV-6 was suspended, where a group of NTV journalists was put to work. The major television channels, Russia's First Channel (ORT), Russia-1 and NTV, began to belong to the state or state-owned enterprises.

On October 25, 2003, Yukos owner Mikhail Khodorkovsky was arrested for alleged violations during the privatization of Apatite. The prosecution began after he announced he would fund the Union of Right Forces and the Yabloko opposition parties. On May 31, 2005, Khodarkovsky was convicted, along with his partner Plato Lebedev, of machinations and large-scale theft, as well as tax evasion. In December 2004, Yugosnavtgaz, an oil producer owned by him, was sold to the state to settle its obligations to Yukos. Following the Yukos case, almost all oil companies have clarified their positions on paying taxes and have begun investing substantial sums of money in the state budget. In 2004, tax collection increased by 250% compared to 2003. State-owned Gazprom buys a 75.7% stake in Sibnav oil company Roman Abramovich's last major asset in Russia for $ 13.1 billion at a market price during. In 2008, the capitalization of Sibnavat was renamed Gazprom Oil to $ 25 billion. The nationalization of Yukos and Sibnavat significantly increased the state's share in the oil and gas industry.

Some billionaires, like Sergey Pugachev, accumulated their wealth in the 1990s, according to media reports, using the Putin Kremlin. Pugachev, who traveled abroad in December 2013, was detained remotely and was wanted on a $ 75 billion international search warrant.

Putin's third term in office in 2012 was marked by his attention to fuel and energy assets, first of all to the oil sector. On May 23, 2012, Igor Sechin was appointed president of the Rusnavt company, which the press describes as Putin's closest proxy. On October 22, 2012, Putin was reported to have acquired 100% of BP International's shares from Russian oil company AAR Consortium and British oil company BP. The total amount of the deal was $ 61 billion. At a meeting with Sechin, Putin called the deal "a good signal for the Russian and international markets," and Sechin described it as a "very effective worker" at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit. The deal ended on March 21, 2013, which Putin described as a very important step in the privatization process.

In February 2013, according to Vedomosti Russian newspaper Vedomosti, Putin became close with President of Transnav Nikolay Tokarev while working at the NSS Dresden headquarters.

Following the example of the developed countries on March 29, 2013, Putin offered to impose restrictions on Russia's top ballooners in Russia.

In May 2013, Putin consulted with the Ombudsman on the issue of granting amnesty to businesspeople but found the idea incomplete and unprepared. But on June 21, Putin approved the amnesty and expressed confidence that it would strengthen citizens' faith in business.

In October 2013, analysts at Credit Suisse Swiss Bank in their annual report on world welfare concluded that Russia's 110 billionaires own 35% of the country's national wealth.

In 2013, there was widespread public outcry over criticism of the Russian Railways OJSC for the luxury of Putin's proposal to state-owned companies and organizations to organize corporate holidays exclusively at their own expense without resorting to budgetary means. The directive was immediately followed by state-owned companies and ministries on the eve of the New Year holidays, and the Russian Presidential Administration and the Russian government, in connection with the "trends", generally refused to organize corporate Christmas parties.

In December 2013, Russian and world media received the attention of Putin's businessman Mikhail Khodorkovsky's amnesty after 10-year imprisonment, described as an attempt to improve Russia's image on the eve of the Sochi Olympics.

A family

On July 28, 1983, 30-year-old Putin married 25-year-old Lyudmila Alexandrovna Shkrebneva.

On June 6, 2013, in an interview with Russia-24 television channel, Vladimir and Lyudmila Putin announced that their marriage had been completed by mutual decision. The wedding, as Putin noted a little later, was not held, therefore, according to him, the religious side of divorce does not exist. The divorce itself, explained Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov, as of March 2014, framed․

Children and grandchildren

Two daughters were born in the marriage: Maria was born on April 28, 1985, in Leningrad and Katerina was born on August 31, 1986, in Dresden. The privacy of Putin's daughters is carefully guarded, a version was published that if they were enrolled in a university, then not under their names. On December 20, 2012, in response to a press conference on the journalist's direct question about whether he has grandchildren, Putin avoided answering, explaining that the country hardly needs to know this, but said that both of his daughters are in Moscow, " study and partly work. "

According to information circulated in Western and Russian media, Maria is married to Dutchman Yorrit Joost Faassen, a businessman, a former top manager of Gazprombank and the Russian consulting group MEF Audit. The media mentioned that for some time Mary lived in the Dutch city of Vorschoten, but Putin in 2015 claimed that none of his daughters had ever lived abroad. As of 2015, Maria Faassen is a graduate of the Faculty of Fundamental Medicine of Moscow State University according to The New Times, studied as Maria Vladimirovna Vorontsova, Ph.D., a specialist in endocrinology. Co-author of a scientific study on the topic "The state of the antioxidant system of blood in patients with acromegaly." He is an employee of the Endocrinology Research Center in Moscow, participates in a charity project of the Alfa Endo Foundation, funded by Alfa Group, whose goal is to help children with diseases of the endocrine system. Co-owner of Nomeco, a company involved in the implementation of the largest private cancer investment project in Russian healthcare; its value is estimated at 40 billion rubles.

According to media reports, Katerina under the surname Tikhonov's patronymic "Tikhonovna" had her maternal grandmother) from February 2013 to January 2018 she was married to Kirill Shamalov - the son of Nikolai Shamalov, co-owner of Rossiya Bank, Putin's comrade in the Lake Lake cooperative. Katerina heads the National Intellectual Development Fund and Innopraktika, and together with Moscow State University, she is implementing a development project on the Vorobyovy Gory worth $ 1.7 billion. Candidate of physical and mathematical sciences. Reuters and Bloomberg agencies, sources close to the leadership of the university, on condition of anonymity, confirmed that Tikhonov had Putin as a daughter. Answering journalists a question about a relationship with Tikhonova, Putin did not confirm this fact or disprove it.

According to published data, on August 15, 2012, in Moscow, Maria had a son. The fact of the birth of Putin's grandson was confirmed in 2014 by his longtime friend, musician Sergei Roldugin. Finally, in June 2017, Putin in an interview with Oliver Stone for his documentary "The Putin Interviews" confirmed that he has grandchildren. During the Straight Line on June 15, 2017, Vladimir Putin said that he recently had a second grandson․

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